Noun clause is a clause (clause) which is used as a noun. As well as single noun (ie book, person, etc.) and noun phrase (ie this book, the one, etc.), noun clause can also be used as a sentence subject and object sentences.
Example :

what she is reading
noun clause
doesn’t know
whom she loves more
noun clause
still remember
what you did last summer
noun clause

A sentence which contains just one clause is called a simple sentence. A sentence which contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses is called a complex sentence. (Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses.)
            There are three basic types of dependent clauses: adjective clauses, adverb clauses, and noun clauses. (Adjective clauses are also called relative clauses.)
v  Noun Clause formula
Contoh Kalimat  Noun Clause
Question word: 
what(ever), what (time, kind, day, etc), 
how (long, far, many times, old, etc)
The class listened carefully what the teacher instructed. 
(Seluruh kelas mendengarkan dengan teliti apa yang guru instruksikan.)
The kitten followed wherever the woman went. 
(Anak kucing mengikuti kemanapun wanita itu pergi.)
Many people imagine how man (Banyak orang membayangkan berapa kali pria itu gagal sebelum sukses.)
bi y time the man was failed before success. 
asanya digunakan untuk kalimat jawaban dari pertanyaan 
yes-no question
Where does Andy live? 
(Dimana Andy tinggal?)I wonder if he lives in West Jakarta. 
(Saya pikir dia tinggal di Jakarta Barat.)
Is Andy live on Dewi Sartika Street? 
(Apakah Andy tinggal di jalan Dewi Sartika?)I don’t know if he live on Dewi Sartika Street or not.
I don’t know whether or not he lives on Dewi Sartika street. 
(Saya tidak tahu jika dia tinggal di jalan Sartika atau tidak.)
biasanya that-clause untuk mental activity. Berikut daftar verb padamain clause yang biasanya diikutithat-clause:assume, believe, discover, dream, guess, hear, hope, know, learn, notice, predict, prove, realize, suppose, suspect, think
I think that the group will arrive in an hour. 
(Saya pikir rombongan itu akan tiba dalam satu jam.)
Many people proved that the man was a big liar. 
(Banyak orang membuktikan bahwa pria itu pembohong besar.)

v  Noun clauses perform the same functions in sentences that nouns do:
-         A noun clause can be a subject of a verb:
“What Billy did shocked his friends”

-         A noun clause can be an object of a verb:
“Billy’s friends didn’t know that he couldn’t swim”

-         A noun clause can be a subject complement:
“Billy’s mistake was that he refused to take lessons”

-         A noun clause can be an object of a preposition:
“Mary is not responsible for what Billy did”

-         A noun clause (but not a noun) can be an adjective complement:
“Everybody is sad that Billy drowned”

v  You can combine two independent clauses by changing one to a noun clause and using it in one of the ways listed above.
The choice of the noun clause marker (see below) depends on the type of clause you are changing to a noun clause:

To change a statement to a noun clause use that:
-         I know + Billy made a mistake =  I know that Billy made a mistake.
To change a yes/no question to a noun clause, use if or whether:
-         George wonders + Does Fred know how to cook? =  George wonders if Fred knows how to cook.
To change a wh-question to a noun clause, use the wh-word:
-          I don’t know + Where is George? = I don’t know where George is.

v  The subordinators in noun clauses are called noun clause markers. Here is a list of the noun clause markers:
That if, whether
-         Wh-words: how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why
-         Wh-ever words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, whomever

v  Except for that, noun clause markers cannot be omitted. Only that can be omitted, but it can be omitted only if it is not the first word in a sentence:
1.        “Billy’s friends didn’t know that he couldn’t swim” (correct)
“Billy’s friends didn’t know he couldn’t swim” (correct)

2.       “Billy’s mistake was that he refused to take lessons” (correct)
“Billy’s mistake was he refused to take lessons” (correct)

3.       “That Billy jumped off the pier surprised everyone” (correct)
“Billy jumped off the pier surprised everyone” (not correct)

v  Statement word order is always used in a noun clause, even if the main clause is a question:
1.        Not correct: “Do you know what time is it?” (Question word order: is it)
Correct: “Do you know what time it is?” (Statement word order: it is)

2.       Not correct: “Everybody wondered where did Billy go” (Question word order: did Billy go)
Correct: “Everybody wondered where Billy went” (Statement word order: Billy went)

v  Here are some examples of sentences which contain one noun clause (underlined) and one independent clause:
Noun clauses as subjects of verbs:
-         That George learned how to swim is a miracle.
-         Whether Fred can get a better job is not certain.
-         What Mary said confused her parents.
-         However you learn to spell is OK with me.

Noun clauses as objects of verbs:
-         We didn’t know that Billy would jump.
-         We didn’t know Billy would jump.
-         Can you tell me if Fred is here?
-         I don’t know where he is.
-         George eats whatever is on his plate.

Noun clauses as subject complements:
-         The truth is that Billy was not very smart.
-         The truth is Billy was not very smart.
-         The question is whether other boys will try the same thing.
-         The winner will be whoever runs fastest.

Noun clauses as objects of prepositions:
-         Billy didn’t listen to what Mary said.
-         He wants to learn about whatever is interesting.

Noun clauses as adjective complements:
-         He is happy that he is learning English.
-         We are all afraid that the final exam will be difficult.

v  Noun clause answers the question what (what) and who / Whom.
-         What I like? (What do I like?)
-         What she did not know? (What does she know?)
-         What I still remember? (What do I still remember?)

v  Pronoun it can be used to replace the noun clause
-         I like it. CORRECT. It is in this sentence replace "what she is reading".
-         I like the book it. INCORRECT if it is used to replace "that she is reading".
-         I still remember it.CORRECT. It is in this sentence replace "what you did last summer".
-         I still remember the killing it. INCORRECT if used it to replace "that you did last summer".

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